Posts tagged with “tips”

Moq tips 1 - learn how to write unit test from ChatGPT

When should I use mockObject.Reset() and when should I use mockObject.Invocations.Clear()?

In the context of using a mocking framework like Moq in C# for unit testing, the choice between mockObject.Reset() and mockObject.Invocations.Clear() depends on what you want to achieve.

  1. mockObject.Reset():

    • This is specific to the Moq library.
    • It resets the mock object, removing any setups or custom behavior you might have defined for that mock.
    • It does not clear recorded invocations; you can still access them after calling Reset().


    var mock = new Mock<MyClass>();
    mock.Setup(x => x.MyMethod()).Returns("Original");
    // ... code using the mock ...
    // Reset the mock, removing setups
    // Now, if you call the method, it won't use the previous setup
    var result = mock.Object.MyMethod();
  2. mockObject.Invocations.Clear():

    • This clears the recorded invocations on the mock object.
    • It doesn't affect setups or custom behavior. It just removes the history of invocations.
    • This can be useful when you want to verify interactions or check the number of invocations without interference from previous test runs.


   var mock = new Mock<MyClass>();
   mock.Setup(x => x.MyMethod()).Returns("Original");
   // ... code using the mock ...
   // Clear recorded invocations
   // Now, if you verify invocations, it won't consider previous calls
   mock.Verify(x => x.MyMethod(), Times.Never());

In summary:

  • Use mockObject.Reset() when you want to clear setups and start fresh with the mock.
  • Use mockObject.Invocations.Clear() when you want to clear the history of invocations, but keep the existing setups and behaviors.

If I set up a method with the same parameters multiple times, the last setup will take effect, right?

In most mocking frameworks, including Moq for C#, the answer is YES. Each new setup for the same method and parameters overrides any previous setups.

Here's an example using Moq:

// Setting up the method with the same parameters but different returns
mock.Setup(x => x.MyMethod()).Returns("FirstSetup");
mock.Setup(x => x.MyMethod()).RetuIrns("SecondSetup");

// Now, if you call the method, it will return "SecondSetup"
var result = mock.Object.MyMethod();

git stash -S # stash staging changes only


fcitx on debian 11 missing tray icon solution:

This is because Debian 11 with Gnome does not ship with the packages to display tray icons. To install and enable the correct packages to display tray icons, run the following command:

sudo apt install gnome-shell-extension-appindicator

Then either reboot or log out and back in to Gnome, and run the following command:

gnome-extensions enable [email protected]


Tailscale on Ubuntu put too many logs into /var/log/syslog


  1. Edit the file /etc/systemd/system/,
  2. Add the line "LogLevelMax=3" in the [Service] section.
  3. systemctl daemon-reload
  4. systemctl restart tailscaled


Power shell: Start-Transcript and Stop-Transcript help you log a session.